When he became a foreman he expected more output from the workmen. Taylor's approach is also often referred to as Taylor's Principles, or, frequently disparagingly, as Taylorism. The use of standards removes all variability from the process and the need for guesswork. It was F.W. In similar fashion he incessantly linked his proposals to shorter hours of work, without bothering to produce evidence of "Taylorized" firms that reduced working hours, and he revised his famous tale of Schmidt carrying pig iron at Bethlehem Steel at least three times, obscuring some aspects of his study and stressing others, so that each successive version made Schmidt's exertions more impressive, more voluntary and more rewarding to him than the last. There needed to be a way to combine scientific techniques with constructive management. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. [20], Taylor believed in transferring control from workers to management. His tenure as president was trouble-ridden and marked the beginning of a period of internal dissension within the ASME during the Progressive Age.[26]. [23], Debate about Taylor's Bethlehem study of workers, particularly the stereotypical laborer "Schmidt", continues to this day. He had introduced stopwatch time studies, that he conducted to set production standards. "Implementing the Gantt chart in Europe and Britain: the contributions of Wallace Clark. They made steel railroad tires. Frederick W Taylor. Unlike [Harrington] Emerson, Taylor was not a charlatan, but his ideological message required the suppression of all evidence of worker's dissent, of coercion, or of any human motives or aspirations other than those his vision of progress could encompass. He would study problems as they arose. This influenced the French theorist Henri Fayol, whose 1916 Administration Industrielle et Générale emphasized organizational structure in management. One of his most famous studies involved shovels. His work titled “The Principles of Scientific Management” was published in 1911. He was a plant manager in Maine. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. Hugo Munsterberg was known as ____. [27] Taylor published the trade book himself in 1912. …traced to the influence of Frederick W. Taylor ’s scientific management movement and the division-of-labour concepts found in Max Weber’s description of the ideal bureaucracy. Moreover, the book he wrote after parting company with the Bethlehem company, Shop Management, sold well. He determined that the most effective load was 21½ pounds, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. Question: The Father Of Scientific Management Was: Question 1 Options: 1) Elton Mayo 2) Abraham Maslow 3) Adam Smith 4) Frederick Herzberg 5) Frederick Taylor Question 2 (1 Point) Saved _____ Is The Gap Between What Is And What Is Required. The father of scientific management is _____. Having spent four years learning his trade, Taylor got a job as a yard laborer at Midvale Steel Company. The Taylor Society was founded in 1912 by Taylor's allies to promote his values and influence. Let us do your homework! The first was that the company was able to improve their scientific processes. Anyone who refused to cooperate was terminated. If the worker produced 9 pieces or less, his piece rate was only 25 cents. [5] In 1872, he entered Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, with the plan of eventually going to Harvard and becoming a lawyer like his father. Henri Fayol (29 July 1841 – 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration that is often called Fayolism. In 1928, workers at Canada Cotton Ltd. in Hamilton, Ontario went on strike against newly introduced Taylorist work methods. Detailed plans, specifying the job and how it was to be done, were to be formulated by management and communicated to the workers.[21]. Due to poor management, Midvale failed in 1873. Around 1922 the journalist Paulette Bernège became interested in Taylor's theories, which were popular in France in the post-war period. In Peter Drucker's description, In 1874, Taylor passed the Harvard entrance examinations with honors. He was a devout student, doing very well with his studies. Frederick W. Taylor was born into a well-to-do family in Philadelphia in 1856. Person, H.S.,ed. who is known as the "father of scientific management"? Frederick Taylor is affectionately referred to as the “Father of Scientific Management.” The modern systems of manufacturing and management would not be the examples of efficiency that they are today, without the work of Taylor. Taylor was allowed to hire Henry L. Gantt, a classmate at Stevens, as an assistant. »[31] Fayol said that this was an unworkable situation and that Taylor must have reconciled the differences in some way not described in Taylor's works. 1972. Scientific management concept is one of the principles of management and is also known as classical theory. Not much has been added to them since—even though he has been dead all of sixty years.[17]. One must establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). He realized that he should take up a trade and got a job as an apprentice machinist and pattern maker. Greenwood Press: Westport, 1947. Wrege. At this time Taylor was promoted to chief engineer and he became more familiar with the machinery in other departments. 19. The most impressive of his inventions was an elaborate set of forging equipment. Taylor finished his four-year apprenticeship and in 1878 became a machine-shop laborer at Midvale Steel Works. To achieve this one would establish a system of control. Lyndall Urwick was its Director until the IMI closed in 1933. He was buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery, in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. Taylor used Brandeis's term in the title of his monograph The Principles of Scientific Management, published in 1911. The ensuing struggle caused Taylor to realize that the basis for the conflict was that management did not understand a proper day’s work. To achieve good grades, Taylor studied many long hours. Taylor and scientific management, publishing The Making of Scientific Management trilogy in the 1940s and The Golden Book of Management in 1956. [34], Older historical accounts used to suggest that British industry had less interest in Taylor's teachings than in similarly sized countries. It was quite unfortunate that Taylor was to miss Harvard Law School due to bad eyes that doctors attributed to stud… Taylor was able to increase wages, productivity and reduce per piece costs at the same time. This is the first and foremost principle of the scientific management theories that refers to the speed and rate at which work needs to be done. [12] Taylor eventually became a professor at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. In addition to establishing a consultancy to implement Taylor's system, Urwick, Orr & Partners, Urwick was also a key historian of F.W. Taylor set a new per piece pay rate of 35 cents if the worker made 10 or more pieces. Atta, Don Van (1986), "Why Is There No Taylorism in the Soviet Union?" In France, Le Chatelier translated Taylor's work and introduced scientific management throughout government owned plants during World War I. Owners frequently labored next to employees, knew what they were capable of, and closely directed their work. Alford was a critic of the Taylor system and his report was negative. Most of Taylor’s inventions involved metal cutting. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks. Nelson, Daniel. Probably the most famous management pioneer of all is Frederick W. Taylor (1856 — 1915), the father of scientific management. Science, English, History, Civics, Art, Business, Law, Geography, all free! brainly.ph/question/1729490 He is the father of scientific management  theory He is an American inventor and an  engineer that applied his engineering and scientific knowledge to management. F.W. Taylor’s work was eventually adopted in a wide array of applications. [51] James W. Rinehart argued that Taylor's methods of transferring control over production from workers to management, and the division of labor into simple tasks, intensified the alienation of workers that had begun with the factory system of production around the period 1870 to 1890.[52]. His business card read "Consulting Engineer - Systematizing Shop Management and Manufacturing Costs a Specialty". His first paper, A Piece Rate System, was presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in June 1895. This principle is propounded by Fredrick Winslow Taylor (F.W Taylor) – the father of management. In eight years he would be promoted from ordinary laborer through the ranks of time keeper, machinist, gang boss, foreman, assistant engineer to chief engineer of the plant. "[40] The voluntaristic approach of the Stakhanovite movement in the 1930s of setting individual records was intrinsically opposed to Taylor's systematic approach and proved to be counter-productive. While Taylor worked at Midvale, he and Clarence Clark won the first tennis doubles tournament in the 1881 US National Championships, the precursor of the US Open. A. the father of scientific management B. a pioneer of scientific management C. the father of MBO D. the father of industrial psychology E. the originator of sociology Hugo Munsterberg has been called the father of industrial psychology. The second step is the formulation of manufacturing laws of economy, standards. Growing up it was expected that Taylor would study to become an attorney. "[43] The situation in the Soviet Union was very different. Taylor wrote to Brandeis, "I have rarely seen a new movement started with such great momentum as you have given this one." Taylor.”Art of Cutting Metals,” p38 Taylor writes of four steps to utilize standard information. His focus on the human component of production Taylor labeled scientific management.[6]. In 1911, Taylor collected a number of his articles into a book-length manuscript, which he submitted to the ASME for publication. Taylor thought that by analyzing work, the "one best way" to do it would be found. Frederick Taylor: A Study in Personality and Innovation. Frederick Winslow Taylor. [1] He was one of the first management consultants. Growing up it was expected that Taylor would study to become an attorney. Who is known as the "father of scientific management"? 1883- The starting of a set of experiments on belting 1884- Construction of a room for storing and issuing tools already ground to the men. MEDIUM. Shop management, by Frederick Winslow Taylor ... with an introduction by Henry R. Towne ... A treatise on concrete, plain and reinforced: materials, construction, and design of concrete and reinforced concrete, "F. W. Taylor, Expert in Efficiency, Dies", "Frederick Taylor, Early Century Management Consultant", "Most Influential Management Books of the 20th Century", "Scientific management; a history and criticism", "The High-Speed Tool-Steel Patent Decision", "Richard A. Scientific management is a management theory based on analyzing and studying workplace processes with the goal of making them more efficient. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Listed 17 basic motions (called therbligs - "Gilbreth" spelled backward) that accounted for the majority of motions involved in any task. The third step is to plan the work. Through these consulting experiences, Taylor perfected his management system. [4] Taylor's mother, Emily Annette Taylor (née Winslow), was an ardent abolitionist and a coworker with Lucretia Mott. His mother's ancestor, Edward Winslow, was one of the fifteen original Mayflower Pilgrims who brought servants or children, and one of eight who had the honorable distinction of Mister. In the early 1920s, the Canadian textile industry was re-organized according to scientific management principles. His father's ancestor, Samuel Taylor, settled in Burlington, New Jersey, in 1677. The results of this study had management hooked. Thompson, Clarence Bertrand. His Principles of Scientific Management was conceived to be free of value judgment. Scientific Management in American Industry. Nevertheless, "[...] Frederick Taylor's methods have never really taken root in the Soviet Union. In later years it was realized that his eye problem was actually caused by stress, as it improved after he left Phillips. His family was not wealthy, but they were well exposed to the high culture of the local society. His family was not wealthy, but they were well exposed to the high culture of the local society. Article last reviewed: 2019 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2020 | Creative Commons 4.0. Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer. Taylor was forced to leave Bethlehem Steel in 1901 after discord with other managers. Frederick W. Taylor was born into a well-to-do family in Philadelphia in 1856. Nevertheless, Taylor was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt his advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements. Frederick Taylor One of his many contributions to modern management is the common practice of giving employees rest breaks throughout the day. In order to get the men to increase their production and be happy about it, Taylor devised an incentive wage. One 2009 study supports assertions Taylor made about the quite substantial increase in productivity, for even the most basic task of picking up, carrying and dropping pigs of iron.[24][25]. View Answer. Taylor angrily withdrew the book and published Principles without ASME approval. The fourth step is to maintain the standards. Taylor was born in 1856 to a Quaker family in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. First, his chief, William Sellers, was an engineer who supported research. The operating times on these machines were long, distinct and easily measured. The ASME formed an ad hoc committee to review the text. in: This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 15:57. - Answered by a verified Tutor. Scientific Management: A Collection of the More Significant Articles Describing the Taylor System of Management. [47] In 1936 the Society merged with the Society of Industrial Engineers, forming the Society for Advancement of Management, which still exists today. Scientific standards for housework were derived from scientific standards for workshops, intended to streamline the work of a housewife. Taylor and his theories are also referenced (and put to practice) in the 1921 dystopian novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. D'Aveni On Changing the Conversation: Tuck and the Field of Strategy", http://archive.wilsonquarterly.com/sites/default/files/articles/WQ_VOL17_SP_1993_Article_02_1.pdf, "NOT SO FAST: Scientific management started as a way to work. He set out to increase the distinction between mental (planning work) and manual labor (executing work). Taylor who was the father of scientific management. Its founder was Frederick Taylor and the theory emerged late in the 19th century. Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Taylor (1856–1915) is called the Father of Scientific Management. He was a mechanical engineer. According to Fayol, the approach results in a "negation of the principle of unity of command. Taylor was concerned with worker inefficiency and the need for managers to gain the co-operative effort of the employees. Taylor’s ideas had a significant influence on the industrial life of all modernized countries. Taylor was a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. [8], In 1898 he joined Bethlehem Steel to solve an expensive machine-shop capacity problem. He believed that there were universal laws which governed efficiency and that these laws were independent of human judgment. Harry Braverman's work, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, published in 1974, was critical of scientific management and of Taylor in particular. [50], Taylor's methods have also been challenged by socialists. View Answer. "Because work is so unrhythmic, the rational manager will hire more workers than he would need if supplies were even in order to have enough for storming. ATTENTION: Please help us feed and educate children by uploading your old homework! This made use of a powerful and reliable steam hammer. Taylor's written works were designed for presentation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). To achieve good grades, Taylor studied many long hours. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: Future US Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis coined the term scientific management in the course of his argument for the Eastern Rate Case before the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1910. [46] A decade after Taylor's death in 1915 the Taylor Society had 800 members, including many leading U.S. industrialists and managers. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) is called the father of Scientific Management. Their arguments relate to progressive defanging of workers in the workplace and the subsequent degradation of work as management, powered by capital, uses Taylor's methods to render work repeatable and precise yet monotonous and skill-reducing. ", Percy S. Brown, 'The Works and Aims of the Taylor Society', Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, 1974, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Bethlehem Iron Company/Bethlehem Steel Company, Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, United States National tennis doubles championship. After his appointment to gang boss, Taylor began to put pressure on the men to increase production. He is well known as the father of scientific management. His two most … Labor productivity soared after the introduction of the scientific management theories as it was the first instance of applying science to the engineering of processes and management. He would study in his spare time in Philadelphia and go to the school in New Jersey to take his exams. There were three significant results of the combined efforts of Taylor and Gantt. By the 1890’s, Midvale was one of the country’s largest defense contractors. Thus Taylor set out to evaluate a “fair day’s work.” By 1885 Taylor had devise a system of production controls. Taylor’s work was an extension of technology. MIT: Cambridge,1970. He was an American inventor and engineer. Taylor realized that at this point he needed to continue his education. [3] His pioneering work in applying engineering principles to the work done on the factory floor was instrumental in the creation and development of the branch of engineering that is now known as industrial engineering. ", "Si les femmes faisaient les maisons… », la croisade de Paulette Bernège", "Femmes & taylorisme : la rationalisation du travail domestique", http://samnational.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/SAMHistory1912-1987b.pdf, Link to Society for Advancement of Management, Shop management, by Frederick Winslow Taylor, "The Principles of Scientific Management", Works by or about Frederick Winslow Taylor, Presidents of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, U.S. National Championships men's doubles champions, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frederick_Winslow_Taylor&oldid=999514276, Fellows of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Grand Slam (tennis) champions in men's doubles, Infectious disease deaths in Pennsylvania, Members of the American Philosophical Society, United States National champions (tennis), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from December 2019, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Following his apprenticeship, Taylor took up an unskilled job at the Midvale Steel Works in 1878, and a… He and Clarence Clark won the inaugural United States National tennis doubles championship at Newport Casino in 1881, defeating Alexander Van Rensselaer and Arthur Newbold in straight sets. He is most remembered for developing the stopwatch time study, which, combined with Frank Gilbreth's motion study methods, later became the field of time and motion study. He also argued that the repetitive work produced by Taylorism might actually give rise to revolutionary thoughts in workers' minds.[49]. Because of the continuing labor shortage, managers are happy to pay needed workers more than the norm, either by issuing false job orders, assigning them to higher skill grades than they deserve on merit criteria, giving them 'loose' piece rates, or making what is supposed to be 'incentive' pay, premia for good work, effectively part of the normal wage. Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Frederick W. Taylor: Biography & “Father of Scientific Management.”," in. He is a Father of the Scientific Management Approach. Taylor was worried with the inefficiency of workers and the need for managers to obtain employees’ collaborative effort. The founding father of scientific management theory is Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915). He was able to reorganize only the publications department and that only partially. Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system: It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. On May 3, 1884, he married Louise M. Spooner of Philadelphia. Taylor's father, Franklin Taylor, a Princeton-educated lawyer, built his wealth on mortgages. He starts with the most elemental units of activity – the workers' actions – then studies the effects of their actions on productivity, devises new methods for making them more efficient, and applies what he learns at lower levels to the hierarchy..."[29] He suggests that Taylor has staff analysts and advisors working with individuals at lower levels of the organization to identify the ways to improve efficiency. One of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. This system was the answer to the inefficiencies of workers performing manual tasks. "[30] Fayol criticized Taylor's functional management in this way: In Shop Management, Taylor said[31] « ... the most marked outward characteristics of functional management lies in the fact that each workman, instead of coming in direct contact with the management at one point only, ... receives his daily orders and help from eight different bosses... these eight were (1) route clerks, (2) instruction card men, (3) cost and time clerks, (4) gang bosses, (5) speed bosses, (6) inspectors, (7) repair bosses, and the (8) shop disciplinarian. Kaker, Sudhir. Darwin, Marx, and Freud make up the trinity often cited as the "makers of the modern world. Taylor moved back home after graduating from Phillips. The initial managerial procedure is to continually measure, classify and file standards related information. At first, we know about Taylor and his contributions. Until 1885, Frederick Taylor’s experiments were conducted only as a gang boss trying to improve his crew’s performance. Brandeis argued that railroads, when governed according to Taylor's principles, did not need to raise rates to increase wages. Particularly enthusiastic were the Cadbury family, Seebohm Rowntree, Oliver Sheldon and Lyndall Urwick. There were two reasons for the success of the company. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with the management alone.[19]. Taylor is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultant . The standard biography of Taylor is Frederick W. Taylor, Father of Scientific Management, 1923, by Frank Barkley Copley, in two volumes. Charles D. and Ronald G. Greenwood. The earliest was by Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Communist, in his Prison Notebooks (1937). The first basic step is to experiment. In Peter Drucker's description, 1885-1889- The making of a series of practical tables for a number of machines…[by] which it was possible to give definite tasks each day to the machinists who were running machines. Bernège's Institute of Housekeeping Organization participated in various congresses on the scientific organization of work that led up to the founding of the CNOF, and in 1929 led to a section in CNOF on domestic economy. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants and director of a famous firm. This differential piece rate system was applied to every task from unloading pig iron and sand, white washing walls, painting, and even changing light bulbs. Taylor was also an athlete who competed nationally in tennis. In 1893, Taylor opened an independent consulting practice in Philadelphia. Business One Irwin: Homewood, 1991. He became famous as a father of scientific management. The Father of Scientific Management: Myth and Reality. https://schoolworkhelper.net/frederick-w-taylor-biography-father-of-scientific-management/, Sir Francis Drake: Biography & Exploration, Dorothy Day: Biography & Catholic Worker Movement, Constantine the Great: Roman Emperor & Biography, Eamon De Valera: Biography & Irish Political Figure, Wolves: Habitat, Characteristics, Behaviors, Power, Control and Loss of Individuality in George Orwell’s 1984, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire, Arthur Miller’s The Crucible: Abigail Williams Analysis, Hiro Murai’s “Guava Island”: Film Analysis. The father of “scientific” management was Frederick Winslow Taylor, a mechanical engineer who performed management studies in 1890. (Edward Clark's son Clarence Clark, who was also a manager at Midvale Steel, married Taylor's sister. The field he created, scientific management, is still refined and used in industry today. A differential piece rate system was set up to mandate that men increase production. Workers were to be selected appropriately for each task. Representatives of the main arguments is Frederick Winslow Taylor, who was the scholar of Western management dubbed the father of management theories in a scientific way. The committee delegated the report to the editor of the American Machinist, Leon P. Alford. The strike at Watertown Arsenal led to the congressional investigation in 1912. [42], "The easy availability of replacement labor, which allowed Taylor to choose only 'first-class men,' was an important condition for his system's success. Frederick W. Taylor and The Rise of Scientific Management. For the stories about Schmidt Montgomery refers to, Jill R. Hough and Margaret A. The committee included Taylor allies such as James Mapes Dodge and Henry R. Towne. This lesson examines the life and works of Peter F. Drucker, who is considered the Father of management theory. Taylor was born in 1856 in U.S.A. Hive P: Easton,1972. Hue P: Easton. Who is the father of scientific management? Taylor found that on a task where production should have been 10 per day, when a worker was paid 50 cents per unit that the worker finished only 4 or 5 pieces each day. [35] More recent research has revealed that British engineers and managers were as interested as in other countries. The company was in period of rapid growth. Standardization and Simplification of Work. Also, Henry Gantt, who was a close associate of Taylor, re-organized the Canadian Pacific Railway.[45]. Taylor who was the father of scientific management. He was generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied, and was dismissed from Bethlehem Iron Company/Bethlehem Steel Company. All through this period, he always had the support of upper management. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. 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Spooner of Philadelphia ( or the... Laborer was worthy of his system into the management alone. [ 45 ] variability from the.. Leave Bethlehem Steel to solve an expensive machine-shop capacity problem professional writers in all subject are! 'S description, this article will describe frederick Taylor his first paper, a piece rate system was up. Enforcing this cooperation rests with the management of the critiques of Taylor 's ideas to the Society! He wrote after parting company with the Bethlehem company, Shop management paper than average wage extension of to. Workers could be producing at much higher levels than they were well to. Inefficiencies of workers performing manual tasks in 1911 approach to technical problems is regarded as the father of scientific.! 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Management methodologies became famous worldwide without ASME approval and to study and experiment in different departments years, frederick Taylor! The IMI closed in 1933 who supported research improved after he left his apprenticeship for six months and a. From 1906 to 1907 not take up his place [ 35 ] more recent research has that! French theorist Henri Fayol, whose 1916 Administration Industrielle et Générale emphasized organizational structure management. Railroads, when governed according to Fayol, whose 1916 Administration Industrielle Générale. Period, he always had the support of upper management. [ 45.! ’ collaborative effort Taylor ) – the father of management. [ 17 ], 1906, Taylor began put! Collection of the local Society foundations, however Gantt, who is the father of scientific management classmate at Stevens, as it improved he! These consulting experiences, Taylor studied many long hours he should take a! The Canadian textile industry was re-organized according to Taylor 's allies to promote his values and.... _____ century was hailed as a father of scientific management. [ ]!

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