HMS Royal Sovereign was a 1st Rate Ship-of-the-Line of the Royal Navy, bearing 100 guns. Третий корабль Королевского флота, названный в честь царствующего дома. ロイヤル・サブリン (HMS Royal Sovereign, 05) は、イギリス海軍の戦艦。リヴェンジ級戦艦 (Revenge class battleship) の1隻[1]。第二次世界大戦終盤にソビエト連邦に供与され、ソ連海軍の戦艦アルハンゲリスク (Архангельск) となった[2]。1949年2月にイギリスに返還され、解体された[3]。愛称は『ロイヤル・ルーブル(Royal Rouble)』[4]。, 本艦は1913年度海軍整備計画でポーツマス海軍工廠で1914年1月15日起工。1915年4月29日進水。1916年4月18日竣工、同年5月に就役し本国艦隊 (The Home Fleet) およびグランド・フリート(英語版)に所属したが、ユトランド沖海戦時には機関故障で参加する事が出来なかった[5]。, 1930年代初頭に近代化改装が行われた。主砲の最大仰角を15度から倍の30度に引き上げて射程距離の延伸を行った。1933年には艦尾にカタパルトを配備したが1936年には早くも撤去されている[6]。1938年に対空攻撃力強化のため10.2cm単装高射砲を10.2cm連装高射砲に換装した。1939年に姉妹艦ラミリーズ(HMS Ramillies, 07)とともに箱型艦橋への改装が構想されたが実現しなかった[註釈 1][7]。, 同年9月に第二次世界大戦が開始された時に本艦は依然として本国艦隊(司令長官チャールズ・フォーブス(英語版)大将)麾下の第二戦隊(英語版) (2nd Battle Squadron) に所属した。その第二戦隊からネルソン級戦艦2隻が出動したり、巡洋戦艦戦隊の高速艦3隻(フッド、レナウン、レパルス)が引き抜かれてドイツ海軍の通商破壊艦の捜索に就いている時も、低速の本艦は主だった活動はなかった。, 1940年になると、本艦は、カニンガム提督が率いる地中海艦隊 (Mediterranean Fleet) に編入された[10]。1940年5月4日にアレクサンドリア到着。6月10日、ムッソリーニ首相の主導によりイタリア王国がイギリスとフランスに宣戦布告して地中海の戦いが始まり、地中海戦線が形成された。 8月17日にJW59船団の護衛の一隻としてイギリスを離れた(北極海輸送船団)[21]。6日後、船団を攻撃したドイツ潜水艦U711(英語版、ドイツ語版)艦長Hans-Günther Langeは「アルハンゲリスク」と駆逐艦に魚雷を命中させたと報告したが、これは誤りであり[22]実際は魚雷は早爆していた[23]。, 「アルハンゲリスク」を撃破したと考えていたドイツ軍は、コラに停泊する「アルハンゲリスク」に対して潜水艦による攻撃を幾度か行ったが防雷網の存在のため失敗に終わっている[22]。続いて特殊潜航艇ビーバー (Biber) による攻撃が計画されたが機械的な問題のため中止となっており、また実行されたとしてもその予定日には「アルハンゲリスク」はコラを離れていた[24]。, 「アルハンゲリスク」は8月29日に北洋艦隊に編入された[25]。「アルハンゲリスク」は第二次世界大戦時のソ連艦艇では最大のものであり[26]、Gordey Levchenko提督の旗艦となり、北極海での船団護衛に従事した[27]。, 1948年になると、イタリア戦艦ジュリオ・チェザーレ (Giulio Cesare) がソ連へ引き渡される[29]。その後、アルハンゲリスクは1949年2月4日にようやくイギリスへ返還された[26][30][4]。ソ連は当初「アルハンゲリスク」はイギリスまでの航海に耐えられないと主張して返還をのがれようとした。返還後、ソ連時代の劣悪な整備や衛生状態の悪さがたたり解体が決まった[31][4]。1949年4月5日に売却され[32]、スコットランド、インヴァーキージング(英語版)の「ソス・W・ウォード社(英語版)(Thos. "[4], Under Admiral Collingwood she was the first ship of the fleet in action at Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, she led one column of warships; Nelson's Victory led the other. [3], On 16 June 1795, as the flagship of Vice-Admiral William Cornwallis, she was involved in the celebrated episode known as 'Cornwallis' Retreat'. HMS Royal Sovereign was originally laid down as a 121-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. [14] As she had most of her masts shot away she could not make signals. HMS Royal Sovereign — Her or His Majesty’s Ship Royal Sovereign) (1786) — üçdorlu, 100 döyüş topuna malik Böyük Britaniya Kral Donamasına məxsus sayca üçüncü I ranq xətt gəmisi. ロイヤル・サブリン (HMS Royal Sovereign, 05) は、イギリス海軍の戦艦。リヴェンジ級戦艦 (Revenge class battleship) の1隻 [1]。第二次世界大戦終盤にソビエト連邦に供与され、ソ連海軍の戦艦アルハンゲリスク (Архангельск) となった The HMS Royal Sovereign is a British battleship built before World War 1 and served all the way until the start of the Cold War. The ship was launched on 29 April 1915 and commissioned in May 1916. Entrò in servizio dopo la battaglia dello Jutland, durante la prima guerra mondiale, prestando poi servizio nella seconda guerra mondiale. Designed by Sir Edward Hunt, she was launched at Plymouth Dockyard on 11 September 1786, at a cost of £67,458, and was the only ship built of her time built to such a large draught (limiting her access to shallow waters). [17], Royal Sovereign returned to duty in the Mediterranean the next year and remained on the blockade of Toulon until November 1811, when she was ordered to return home to the Channel Fleet. At approximately the same moment, Collingwood remarked to his captain, Edward Rotheram, 'What would Nelson give to be here? '[5], Royal Sovereign and Santa Ana duelled for much of the battle, with Santa Ana taking fire from fresh British ships passing through the line, including HMS Mars and HMS Tonnant, while nearby French and Spanish vessels fired on Royal Sovereign. 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